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What is IP?

What is Intellectual Property?

Intellectual Property (IP) refers to the rights granted by law in relation to the fruits of human creative activity. In the context of this policy, IP includes copyright, all rights in relation to inventions, registered and unregistered trademarks, registered designs, and all other rights resulting from intellectual activity in the industrial, scientific, literary or artistic fields.


A trademark is a sign that individualizes the goods or services of a given enterprise and distinguishes them from their competitors. A trademark must be distinctive and it should not be deceptive.

Geographical Indications

A geographical indication is basically a notice stating that a given product originates in a given geographical area.

Appellation of Origin

Appellation of origin is a more precise form of geographical indication, which specifies that the product has qualities that are derived specifically from the fact that it is made in a particular region.

Industrial Design

An industrial design is that aspect of a useful article, which is ornamental or aesthetic. It may consist of three-dimensional features, such as the shape or surface of the article, or two-dimensional features, such as patterns, lines or color.


A patent (an invention) is an exclusive right granted for any new product, method or process that is useful and inventive.

Trade Names

A name used in business or trade to designate the business of the user and to which the user asserts a right of exclusive use.

Trade Secrets

Trade secret means information, including a formula, pattern, compilation, program device, method, technique, or process, that:
(i) derives independent economic value, actual or potential, from not being generally known to, and not being readily ascertainable by proper means by, other persons who can obtain economic value from its disclosure or use, and
(ii) is the subject of efforts that are reasonable under the circumstances to maintain its secrecy.

Utility Models

It is a monopoly right to the exclusive use of a technical solution not reaching the level of an invention. It is similar to a patent but can last for a shorter period and is at the same time faster and easier to obtain and cheaper to maintain compared with patents. This way of protection is not for inventions, but for less sophisticated solutions for the configuration or construction of an article or the arrangement of parts thereof. A utility model is a property which, like any other business commodity, may be bought, sold, hired or licensed.

Integrated Circuit

A product, in its final or intermediate form, in which the elements, at least one of which is an active element, and whereby the interconnections are integrally formed in and/or on a piece of material, which is intended to perform an electronic function.


A three-dimensional disposition of the elements composing an integrated circuit, or a three-dimensional disposition specifically prepared to produce an integrated circuit intended for manufacture.


Copyright is concerned with protecting work of the human intellect. The domain of copyright is the protection of literary and artistic works. These include writings, music, works of the fine arts, such as paintings and sculptures, and technology- based works, such as computer programs and electronic databases.

Related Rights

Related Rights or Neighboring Rights are rights that in certain respects resemble copyright. The purpose of related rights is to protect the legal interests of certain persons and legal entities who contribute to making works available to the public. The overall purpose of these related rights is to protect those people or organizations that add substantial creative, technical or organizational skill in the process of bringing a work to the public. Related rights have been granted to three categories of beneficiaries: performers, producers and broadcasters.

Unfair Competition

Unfair competition is any act of competition contrary to honest practices in industrial or commercial matters.

Plant Varieties

A plant varieties right protects new and distinctive varieties of plants by giving its holder an exclusive right to exploitation.